Using the 여성구인구직 discrete choice experiment (DCE), this novel study sought to gain further insight into postgraduate students preferences for jobs studied at the Kwame Nkrumah University of Technology-Institute for Distance Education, Ghana, as well as rank attributes they consider essential for jobs. This novel research is one of the first studies that employed a DCE as well as an electronically administered self-administered closed-ended questionnaire to solicit the preferences for jobs from postgraduate students in Ghana, a developing nation. This novel study is the first to employ the DCE to more effectively elicit preferences and trade-offs amongst postgraduate students in a developing country with respect to different characteristics of jobs which influence their future occupational decisions.
In addition to individual variations in occupational preferences, the larger comparative literature has addressed context-specific variations in postmaterialist values between countries. A second goal of the present research is to explore how variations in job preferences across countries and over time might relate to these core contextual factors. This review suggests substantial cross-sectional and longitudinal variation in contextual factors, prompting a central question about whether, and if so, how, these macro-level characteristics might explain differences in job preferences, both across countries and across time.
Results of comparisons of labor preferences in five countries between 1996 and 2001 reported significant cross-country variations in values, though these were not identifiable as types of either output regimes or benefits, but as differences in labor force composition, with differences in labor force quality playing a major role for intrinsic labor values (Gallie 2007b). Evidence of substantial variation in preferences between countries does not suggest that cross-country or cultural differences are the main sources of preference change around the world. However, there are other relationships, for example, between time preferences and sex, or positive reciprocity and age, in which qualitative relationships differ significantly across countries.
We gain from analysing how work preferences differ along eight core dimensions of work quality, in 19 countries, at four points in time from 1989 to 2015. Figures 1A-B present averages by country and time for three quality dimensions/indexes and the only one related to preferences for a fun job. Figures I and II illustrate how country-level averages of each preference compared with world-level averages.10 Each preference is normalized so that it has a mean of 0 and standard deviation of 1 in individual-level data.
The public data set from GPS includes various measures of preferences, along with information about respondents cognitive skills and country of residence. Prior to Gallups World Poll 2012, Gallup conducted pre-testing on GPS survey items in 22 countries with different cultural traditions. For research, we presented the Global Preferences Survey (GPS), a dataset of experimentally validated survey data on time preferences, risk preferences, positive and negative reciprocity, altruism, and trust, which was completed by 80,000 individuals across 76 countries.
For current work studies, results on worker commitment were collected among 73,752 respondents aged 18 or older across 141 countries through Gallups World Poll, as well as from 151,335 respondents in the United States using Gallups Daily Tracking survey. More than 200,000 individuals in 189 countries participated in the survey, creating a multidimensional framework employers can use for both international recruitment as well as redesigning their overall staffing strategies. Over a period of July through September, ManpowerGroup interviewed a total of 45,019 employers across 43 countries and territories, measuring hiring intentions going forward. Together, Boston Consulting Group and The Network have been conducting research into the modern global workforce – from what people in different parts of the world expect in their jobs, what would motivate them to relocate to a different country to what countries people would consider moving to, in various parts of the world.
The results of the survey reflected the broad changes to Americas workforce, including that an estimated 92 million workers are offering flex-work, 80 million workers are engaged in flex-work, and that a significant number of respondents said finding flexible work was the main motivation they used when looking for new jobs. A new survey of workers across 29 countries found a majority wanted flexible work to be the norm. Change is exactly what has happened, according to the new survey, and most of people around the world said they would like the option of continuing working from home flexibly.
For instance, roughly 94% of respondents in a Dutch poll said they would consider moving to a different country to work. The reasons behind these lower numbers vary, but many in these countries say that economic stability and home comforts prevent them from considering work abroad. The share who are open to working abroad is especially large in countries where economic development is still slowing down or where there is political instability. Young people in Germany are far more reserved about the idea of working abroad; although there is a difference between young Germans and the country overall in their willingness to do so, this difference is relatively small at eight points.
Thirty-five per cent of employed people are able to work from home fully, while 23 per cent are able to do so part-time. A notable 58 per cent of employed respondents — extrapolated from a representative sample, which is the equivalent of 92 million people across the entire range of occupations and types of work — reported having the ability to work from home all or some of the week. What makes these numbers especially noteworthy is that respondents are working in a variety of jobs, across all parts of the continental U.S. and across economic sectors, including what are traditionally referred to as blue-collar jobs, that would have been expected to require in-site work, and include both traditionally blue-collar jobs that could have been expected to require on-site labor, and include white-collar jobs. Job seekers strongly value having autonomy over where and when they work. The survey asked whether individuals had been looking for work recently, or were planning on looking. As with previous Gallup Global Workplace Surveys, levels of engagement vary across various regions of the world, as well as between countries within these regions.